- Describe and discuss four important reasons why students should care about social scientific research methods
- Identify how social workers use research as part of evidence-based practice
At this point, you may be wondering about the relevance of research methods to your life. Whether or not you choose to become a social worker, you should care about research methods for two basic reasons: (1) research methods are regularly applied to solve social problems and issues that shape how our society is organized, thus you have to live with the results of research methods every day of your life, and (2) understanding research methods will help you evaluate the effectiveness of social work interventions, which is an important skill for future employment.
Consuming research and living with its results
Another New Yorker cartoon depicts two men chatting with each other at a bar. One is saying to the other, “Are you just pissing and moaning, or can you verify what you’re saying with data?” (https://condenaststore.com/featured/are-you-just-pissing-and-moaning-edward-koren.html). Think about yourself: Would you rather be a complainer or someone who can verify what they say? Understanding research methods and how they work can help position you to actually do more than just complain. Further, whether you know it or not, research probably has some impact on your life each and every day. Many of our laws, social policies, and court proceedings are grounded in some degree of empirical research and evidence (Jenkins & Kroll-Smith, 1996).  That’s not to say that all laws and social policies are good or make sense. However, you can’t have an informed opinion about any of them without understanding where they come from, how they were formed, and what their evidence base is. All social workers, from micro to macro, need to understand the root causes and policy solutions to social problems that their clients are experiencing.
A recent lawsuit against Walmart provides an example of social science research in action. A sociologist named Professor William Bielby was enlisted by plaintiffs in the suit to conduct an analysis of Walmart’s personnel policies in order to support their claim that Walmart engages in gender discriminatory practices. Bielby’s analysis shows that Walmart’s compensation and promotion decisions may indeed have been vulnerable to gender bias. In June 2011, the United States Supreme Court decided against allowing the case to proceed as a class-action lawsuit (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Dukes, 2011).  While a class-action suit was not pursued in this case, consider the impact that such a suit against one of our nation’s largest employers could have on companies and their employees around the country and perhaps even on your individual experience as a consumer. 
In addition to having to live with laws and policies that have been crafted based on social science research, you are also a consumer of all kinds of research. A strong understanding of research methods can help you be a more informed consumer. Have you ever noticed the magazine headlines that peer out at you while you are waiting in line to pay for your groceries? They are geared toward piquing your interest and making you believe that you will learn a great deal if you follow the advice in a particular article. However, since you would have no way of knowing whether the magazine’s editors had gathered their data from a representative sample of people like you and your friends, you would have no reason to believe that the advice would be worthwhile. By having some understanding of research methods, you can avoid wasting your money on magazines and avoid wasting your time on inappropriate advice.
If you were to pick up any magazine or newspaper or tune into any news broadcast, you are likely to hear about some new and exciting research results. A strong understanding of research methods will help you to read past the type of vague headlines and ask clarifying questions about what you see and hear in the media. In other words, research methods can help you to become a more responsible consumer of public and popular information. Who wouldn’t want to be more responsibly informed?
At some point in your schooling, I am sure that you have felt as though a class was not relevant and found yourself wondering when you’ll ever need the information in “real life.” You may not believe me, but the research methods from this text will be used often in your careers. Social work supervisors and administrators at agency-based settings will likely have to demonstrate that their agency’s programs are effective at achieving their goals. Most private and public grants will require evidence of effectiveness for your agency to receive funding and to keep the programs running. Social workers at community-based organizations commonly use research methods to target their interventions to the needs of their service area. Clinical social workers must also make sure that the interventions they use in practice are effective and not harmful to clients. In addition, social workers may want to track client progress on goals, help clients gather data about their clinical issues, or use data to advocate for change. As a whole, all social workers in all practice situations must remain current on the scientific literature to ensure competent and ethical practice.
In all of these cases, a social worker needs to be able to understand and evaluate scientific information. Evidence-based practice (EBP) for social workers involves making decisions on how to help clients based on the best available evidence. A social worker must examine the current literature and understand both the theory and evidence relevant to the practice situation. According to Rubin and Babbie (2017),  EBP also involves understanding client characteristics, using practice wisdom and existing resources, and adapting to environmental context. It is not simply “doing what the literature says,” but rather a process by which practitioners examine the literature, client, self, and context to inform interventions with clients and systems. As we discussed in Section 1.2, the patterns discovered by scientific research are not perfectly applicable to all situations. Instead, we rely on the critical thinking of social workers to apply scientific knowledge to real-world situations.
Let’s consider an example of a social work administrator at a children’s mental health agency. The agency uses a private grant to fund a program that provides low-income children with bicycles, teaches the children how to repair and care for their bicycles, and leads group bicycle outings after school. Physical activity has been shown to improve mental health outcomes in scientific studies, but is this social worker’s program improving mental health in their clients? Ethically, the social worker should make sure that the program is achieving its goals. If the program is not beneficial, the resources should be spent on more effective programs. Practically, the social worker will also need to demonstrate to the agency’s donors that bicycling truly helps children deal with their mental health concerns.
The example above demonstrates the need for social workers to engage in evaluation research, or research that evaluates the outcomes of a policy or program. She will choose from many acceptable ways to investigate program effectiveness, and those choices are based on the principles of scientific inquiry you will learn in this textbook. As the example above mentions, evaluation research is embedded into the funding of nonprofit, human service agencies. Government and private grants need to make sure their money is being spent wisely. If your program does not work, then the funds will be allocated to a program that has been proven effective or a new program that may be effective. Just because a program has the right goal doesn’t mean it will actually accomplish that goal. Grant reporting is an important part of agency-based social work practice. Agencies, in a very important sense, help us discover what approaches actually help clients.
In addition to engaging in evaluation research to satisfy the requirements of a grant, your agency may also engage in evaluation research to validate a new approach to treatment. Innovation in social work is incredibly important. Sam Tsemberis relates an “aha” moment from his practice in this Ted talk on homelessness (https://youtu.be/HsFHV-McdPo). As a faculty member at the New York University School of Medicine, he noticed a problem with people cycling in and out of the local psychiatric hospital wards. Clients would arrive in psychiatric crisis, become stable with the help of medical supervision, and end up back in the psychiatric crisis ward shortly after discharge. When he asked the clients what their issues were, they said they were unable to participate in homelessness programs because they were not always compliant with medication for their mental health diagnosis and they continued to use drugs and alcohol. Collaboratively, the problem facing these clients was defined as a homelessness service system that was unable to meet clients where they were. Clients who were unwilling to remain completely abstinent from drugs and alcohol or who did not want to take psychiatric medications were simply cycling in and out of psychiatric crisis, moving from the hospital to the street and back to the hospital.
The solution that Sam Tsemberis implemented and popularized was called Housing First. It is an approach to homelessness prevention that starts by, you guessed it, providing people with housing first. Like Tanya Tull’s approach to address child and family homelessness, Tsemberis created a model to address chronic homelessness in people with co-occurring disorders (substance abuse and mental illness). The Housing First model holds that housing is a human right, one that should not be denied based on substance use or mental health diagnosis. Clients are given housing as soon as possible. The Housing First agency provides wraparound treatment from an interdisciplinary team, including social workers, nurses, psychiatrists, and former clients who are in recovery. Over the past few decades, this program has gone from one program in New York City to the program of choice for federal, state, and local governments seeking to address homelessness in their communities.
The main idea behind Housing First is that once clients have an apartment of their own, they are better able to engage in mental health and substance abuse treatment. While this approach may seem logical to you, it is backwards from the traditional homelessness treatment model. The traditional approach began with the client stopping drug and alcohol use and taking prescribed medication. Only after clients achieved these goals were they offered group housing. If the client remained sober and medication compliant, they could then graduate towards less restrictive individual housing.
Evaluation research helps practitioners establish that their innovation is better than the alternatives and should be implemented more broadly. By comparing clients who were served through Housing First and traditional treatment, Tsemberis could establish that Housing First was more effective at keeping people housed and progressing on mental health and substance abuse goals. Starting first with smaller studies and graduating to much larger ones, Housing First built a reputation as an effective approach to addressing homelessness. When President Bush created the Collaborative Initiative to Help End Chronic Homelessness in 2003, Housing First was used in many of the interventions and its effectiveness was demonstrated on a national scale. In 2007, it was acknowledged as an evidence-based practice in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Policies (NREPP). 
I suggest browsing around the NREPP website (https://nrepp.samhsa.gov/landing.aspx) and looking for interventions on topics that interest you. Other sources of evidence-based practices include the Cochrane Reviews digital library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com/) and Campbell Collaboration (https://campbellcollaboration.org/). In the next few chapters, we will talk more about how to find literature about interventions in social work. The use of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials are particularly important in this regard.
So why share the story of Housing First? Well, I want you think about what you hope to contribute to our knowledge on social work practice. What is your bright idea and how can it change the world? Practitioners innovate all the time, often incorporating those innovations into their agency’s approach and mission. Through the use of research methods, agency-based social workers can demonstrate to policymakers and other social workers that their innovations should be more widely used. Without this wellspring of new ideas, social services would not be able to adapt to the changing needs of clients. Social workers in agency-based practice may also participate in research projects happening at their agency. Partnerships between schools of social work and agencies are a common way of testing and implementing innovations in social work. Clinicians receive specialized training, clients receive additional services, agencies gain prestige, and researchers can study how an intervention works in the real world.
While you may not become a scientist in the sense of wearing a lab coat and using a microscope, social workers must understand science in order to engage in ethical practice. In this section, we reviewed many ways in which research is a part of social work practice, including:
- Determining the best intervention for a client or system
- Ensuring existing services are accomplishing their goals
- Satisfying requirements to receive funding from private agencies and government grants
- Testing a new idea and demonstrating that it should be more widely implemented
- Whether we know it or not, our everyday lives are shaped by social scientific research.
- Understanding research methods is important for competent and ethical social work practice.
- Understanding social science and research methods can help us become more astute and more responsible consumers of information.
- Knowledge about social scientific research methods is important for ethical practice, as it ensures interventions are based on evidence.
Evaluation research– research that evaluates the outcomes of a policy or program
Evidence-based practice– making decisions on how to help clients based on the best available evidence
- Jenkins, P. J., & Kroll-Smith, S. (Eds.). (1996). Witnessing for sociology: Sociologists in court. Westport, CT: Praeger. ↵
- Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Dukes, 564 U.S. (2011); The American Sociological Association filed an amicus brief in support of what would be the class of individuals claiming gender discrimination. You can read the brief at http://asanet.org/images/press/docs/pdf/Amicus_Brief_Wal-Mart_vDukes_et_al.pdf. For other recent amicus briefs filed by the ASA, see http://asanet.org/about/amicus_briefs.cfm. ↵
- Want to know more about the suit against Walmart or about Bielby’s analysis for the case? Check out the following source: Hart, M., & Secunda, P. M. (2009). A matter of context: Social framework evidence in employment discrimination class actions. Fordham Law Review, 78, 37-70. (2009). A matter of context: Social framework evidence in employment discrimination class action. Fordham Law Review, 78, 37–70. Retrieved from: http://www.fordhamlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/Vol_78/Hart_Secunda_October_2009.pdf ↵
- Rubin, A., and Babbie, E. R. (2017). Research methods for social work (9th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth. ↵
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2007). Pathways' housing first program. Retrieved from: https://nrepp.samhsa.gov/Legacy/ViewIntervention.aspx? id=365 ↵